Divisions

Division

Introduction

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In the Wildlife Division of the Ministry, the Additional Director General of Forests (WL) and Director, Wildlife Preservation is the head of the Wildlife Wing. The Wildlife Wing has two Divisions, namely, Project Elephant Division and Wildlife Division, each headed by an officer in the rank of Inspector General of Forests. A Deputy Inspector General of Forest (Wildlife) and an Assistant Inspector General and Joint Director (Wildlife) provide administrative and technical support to the Wildlife Wing. In addition, there are three autonomous bodies, Wildlife Institute of India (WII) for wildlife research & training, Central Zoo Authority (CZA) for conservation and zoo management and National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). The NTCA has been constituted by converting the Project Tiger Directorate into an autonomous body for tiger conservation. The National Zoological Park in the capital is also a part of the Wildlife wing of the Ministry of Environment & Forests.

 

 To combat wildlife related crimes, a Wildlife Crime Control Bureau under the Director, Wildlife Preservation has been constituted with 5 Regional Offices viz, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur and 3 Sub-regional offices at Amritsar, Guwahati, and Kochi. And 5 Border Units located at Moreh, Nathula, Motihari, Gorakhpur and  Ramanathapuram.

 

Wildlife Division deals with the policy and law matters and knowledge management for facilitating processes and analysis for evolution of policy and law for conservation of biodiversity and Protected Area network.

 

Wildlife Division of the Ministry provides technical and financial support to the State/ UT Governments for wildlife conservation under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme - Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats and also through Central Sector Scheme - Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies for Special Tasks, and through Grants in Aid to the Central Zoo Authority and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. The objectives and details of the Schemes are as given below:

 

CSS - Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats:

 

At present India has a network of 700 Protected Areas (103 National Parks, 528 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 65 Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves).  The details of the Protected Areas in India may be seen at:

 

http://www.wiienvis.nic.in/Database/Protected_Area_854.aspx

 

The Government of India provides financial and technical assistance to the State/UT Governments for activities aimed at wildlife conservation through the Centrally Sponsored Scheme viz. ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’. The scheme has following three components:

 

i.                    Support to Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves)

ii.                  Protection of Wildlife Outside Protected Areas

iii.                Recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and habitats.

 

i.                    Support to Protected Areas:

 

Eligible PAs: National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves, other than those availing central assistance  under the CSS- Project Tiger, which are duly notified under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and are under the control of the Chief Wildlife Wardens.

 

Pattern of funding:

100% central assistance is provided for non-recurring items and 50% assistance for recurring items.

Areas falling in mountain regions, coastal zones, deserts, or those areas which support certain selected endangered species, are eligible for 100% central assistance for both recurring and non-recurring items.

 

  1. Protection of Wildlife Outside Protected Areas:

 

There is substantial wildlife and natural resources lying outside the Protected Areas network of India. This component seeks to support the conservation of wildlife in these areas.

 

Eligible areas:

 High value biodiversity areas outside PAs. Areas contiguous to PAs/corridors are given priority.

The Chief Wildlife Wardens prepare a Biodiversity Conservation Plan for such selected area; Human-wildlife conflict management in and around forests.

Pattern of funding: Same as in the case of PAs.

 

  1. Recovery programme for critically endangered species and habitats:

 

This component is for affecting the recovery of critically endangered species in the country. Initially 17 species have been identified under this component. These are Snow Leopard, Bustard (including Floricans), Dolphin, Hangul, Nilgiri Tahr, Marine Turtles, Dugongs, Edible Nest Swiftlet, Asian Wild Buffalo, Nicobar Megapode, Manipur Brow-antlered Deer, Vultures, Malabar Civet, Indian Rhinoceros, Asiatic Lion, Swamp Deer and Jerdon’s Courser.

 

The Director, Wildlife Preservation, Government of India, in consultation with the Wildlife Institute of India or the relevant scientific institute and with the approval of the Standing Committee of the NBWL can initiate other recovery programmes or wind up an ongoing programme.

 

Pattern of funding:

100% assistance is provided for both non-recurring and recurring items.

Each recovery programme has to be based on a comprehensive and scientific ‘Recovery Plan’. The Chief Wildlife Wardens of the concerned States (if the species range is in more than one State), shall jointly prepare the Recovery Plan with the help of a national scientific institute/organization of repute.

 

Activities under CSS- ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’:

 

Activities covered under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’ are as follows:

 

1. Management Planning and capacity building:

     i. Strengthening wildlife research, education and nature awareness

     ii.

Staff development and capacity building

     iii.

Monitoring and evaluation

     iv. Management Planning

 

2. Anti-poaching & infrastructure development:

i Anti-poaching activities

 

ii Strengthening of infrastructure

 

iii Strengthening Wildlife veterinary care

 

iv Strengthening Staff welfare activities

 

3. Restoration of habitats:

 

i Habitat improvement activities

 

ii  Safeguards / Retrofitting measures

 

4. Eco-development and community oriented activities:

i  Addressing man-animal conflict

ii Strengthening co-existence agenda

 iii Deciding inviolate spaces and relocation of villages from crucial wildlife habitats  

iv Fostering ecotourism

v .Assistance to activities in Trans-boundary Protected Areas

 

Financial releases made during the last five years- State/UT-wise under CSS- ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’

(Rs. in lakhs)

 

S.No

State/UT

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

1

A& N Islands

87.872

127.06

 109.50

150.00

00

2

Andhra Pradesh

64.341

71.5

180.335

00

63.31

3

Arunachal Pradesh

213.197

168.11

162.376

220.439

00

4

Assam

186.63

234.17

146

138.88

149.11

5

Bihar

19.889

0

64.685

34.8715

85.249

6

Chandigarh

12.29

19.98

0

00

00

7

Chhattisgarh

281.966

241.783

449.566

408.74

482.087

8

Goa

32.879

21.458

148.12

00

00

9

Gujarat

1106.75

1126.59

517.926

537.84457

634.94

10

Haryana

15.114

28.7

52

00

14.71

11

Himachal Pradesh

253.8

242.11

318.967

475.849

430.345

12

Jammu & Kashmir

537.336

445.085

515.957

485.747

506.761

13

Jharkhand

63.64

64.2615

81.6195

97.7655

101.12

14

Karnataka

412.252

335.851

434.502

351.00

483.7769

15

Kerala

366.786

941.79

1210.08

505.782

818.491

16

Madhya Pradesh

635.366

506.164

467.707

454.354

371.354

17

Maharashtra

343.32

322.391

425.883

470.772

402.723

18

Manipur

88.316

86.65

73.925

80.80

129.192

19

Meghalaya

58.03

43.8

22.08

25.56

44.87

20

Mizoram

707.763

153.445

96.392

210.334

131.5413

21

Nagaland

33.595

30.333

25.855

15.375

85.155

22

Odisha

315.331

331.265

368.208

341.7448

350.3229

23

Punjab

25.12

00

00

00

00

24

Puducherry

00

00

00

00

12.00

25

Rajasthan

348.068

291.387

478.249

430.884

367.296

26

Sikkim

183.78

131.793

177.579

129.27836

169.15643

27

Tamil Nadu

334.449

256.027

258.479

277.7918

280.626

28

Tripura

2.84

00

00

00

00

29

Uttar Pradesh

296.179

204.371

319.09

323.531

224.899

30

Uttarakhand

134.9

201.144

220.27

326.282

141.116

31

West Bengal

276.385

246.425

164.135

184.3735

108.847

 

TOTAL

7438.18

6873.64

7489.4855

6677.999

6588.99853

 

Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of the CSS- Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats:

 

During 2005-06, the Wildlife Division had initiated the Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of the CSS- 'Assistance for Development of National Parks and Sanctuaries. Accordingly, the Ministry had set up five Regional Expert Committees, for the independent evaluation of PAs. The Wildlife Institute of India  is  coordinating the process of Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE).  Since 2006 to 2014, 125 PAs have been evaluated. MEE score of these PAs are as below

 

Total No. of PAs

Overall MEE Score (%)

Evaluation Category

 

 

125

 

 

 

 

61%

Very Good

Good

Fair

Poor

18 (14%)

42 (34%)

62 (34%)

3 (2%)

 

During the year, 2015-16, it is proposed to evaluate 40 more PAs. Proposal in this regard is under process.

 

 Species Recovery Programme:

 

Out of 17 species identified for the species recovery programme, financial assistance has been provided for nine species. The amount provided to the State/Union Territory in respect of these species is as below:

 

Name of Species

Name of State

Year

Amount Released

(Rs. in lakh)

Hangul

 

Jammu & Kashmir

 

2008-09

99.00

Jammu & Kashmir

2010-11

89.62

Jammu & Kashmir

 

2012-13

79.94

 

Total

 

268.56

 

 

 

 

Snow Leopard

 

 

Jammu & Kashmir

 

2008-09

126.00

Jammu & Kashmir

2010-11

43.20

Uttarakhand

 

2008-09

86.40

Arunachal Pradesh

(Funds released for preparation of Recovery Plan

2009-10

3.20

Himachal Pradesh

2010-11

24.16

Himachal Pradesh

2011-12

69.048

Himachal Pradesh

2012-13

71.488

Himachal Pradesh

2013-14

10.15

Himachal Pradesh

2014-15

53.555

 

Total

 

586.201

 

 

 

 

Vulture

 

Punjab

2008-09

16.00

Punjab

2010-11

2.40

Haryana

2008-09

38.00

Haryana

2011-12

5.60

Gujarat

2008-09

12.30

 

Total

 

74.30

 

 

 

 

Swiftlets

 

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

2009-10

30.99

Andaman & Nicobar Island

2010-11

24.672

Andaman & Nicobar Island

2011-12

19.20

Andaman & Nicobar Island

2012-13

17.54

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

 

13.79

 

Total

 

106.192

 

 

 

 

Nilgiri Tahr

Tamil Nadu

(Funds released for preparation of Recovery  Plan)

2009-10

4.80

 

Total

 

4.80

 

 

 

 

Sanghai Deer

 

Manipur

2009-10

33.96

Manipur

2013-14

27.82

Manipur

2014-15


79.152

 

Total

 

140.932

 

 

 

 

Lion

 

Gujarat

2010-11

674.541

Gujarat

2011-12

675.859

 

Total

 

1350.40

 

 

 

 

Dugong

 

Andaman & Nicobar Island

2013-14

18.61

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

2013-14

36.93

 

Total

 

55.54

 

 

 

 

Wild buffalo

 

Chhattisgarh

2012-13

13.75

Chhattisgarh

2013-14

95.17

Chhattisgarh

2014-15

101.12

 

Total

 

210.04

 

 

 

 

Jerdon’s Courser 

Andhra Pradesh

2014-15

63.31

 

Total

 

63.31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Financial assistance has also been provided to the States for relocation of families  from within PAs to areas outside. Details of such assistance provided are as follows: 

 

S.No.

Name of State/PA

Year

No. of Families

Amount Released

1

Chhattisgarh (Barnawapara WLS)

2009-10

135

540.00

 

 

 

 

 

2

Kerala

(Wayanad Sanctuary)

2011-12

55

550.00

 

2012-13

98

784.00

 

2013-2014

75

446.00

 

3

Kerala

(Malabar WLS)

2011-12

3

30.00

4

Mizoram

(Thoranghtlang WLS)

2010-11

61

488.00

 

 

 

Human-animal conflict:

In India, human-animal conflict is seen across the country in a variety of forms, including monkey menace in the urban centers, crop raiding by ungulates and wild pigs, depredation by elephants, cattle lifting  and human death and injury by tigers, leopards and other wild animals. Human-animal conflict occurs both inside Protected Areas as well as outside Protected Areas. The intensity of the conflict is generally more in areas outside Protected Area network than inside.

Recently the incident of human-animal conflict has increased considerably. The increase is due to various reasons. Important among them are increase in wild animal population, fragmentation of habitats, non availability of food and water in the habitat due to degradation, disturbance in the corridors due to developmental activities, change in cropping pattern, increase in human populations etc. Various other reasons include adaptability of certain animals like leopard, monkey, nilgai, bear etc which allow them to live successfully close to human habitation.

The human-animal conflict is an important part of wildlife management as the co-operation of local population depends largely on winning their support by reducing loss to them by wild animals among many others.

In order to mitigate the human animal conflict, a national workshop on ‘Developing Strategies for Mitigation of Human wildlife conflict’ was held on 20.8.2013 at New Delhi wherein the matter was discussed and several mitigating measures were suggested. The Division is pursuing to have a separate component under the scheme for managing human-animals conflict.

 

3) CS - Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies for Special Tasks:

 

This Central Sector Scheme was launched in 1986 to strengthen the Wildlife Division in the Ministry and the Regional Offices of Wildlife Preservation for fulfilling the statutory obligations under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and the inter-Governmental commitments  under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

 

International trade in wild flora and fauna including the species covered under CITES, is regulated by the provisions of the EXIM Policy. Relevant parts  of EXIM Policy are based on the legal provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 and provisions of CITES. The Director (Wildlife Preservation) is designated as the CITES Management Authority and the Regional Deputy Directors (WCCB) are the Assistant Management  Authorities  for CITES implementation.  The function of these offices is to monitor and regulate international trade in wildlife and wildlife articles at the designated ports of exit and entry i.e Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Cochin, Amritsar and Guwahati.  In addition to the periodic reviews by the regional offices of Wildlife Preservation, an Annual Report is published as per the requirement of CITES.  Consequent upon creation of Wildlife Crime Control Bureau, these regional and sub-regional offices have been merged in the Bureau.

The scheme “Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies” (Control of Wildlife Crime) support the expenses of  the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau and its regional  offices located in Delhi, Jabalpur, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai to ensure adequate manpower and development of infrastructure for better enforcement of Wild Life (Protection) Act, etc. Assistance is also extended to the three sub regional offices at Guwahati, Amritsar and Cochin which were established subsequently to further strengthen the organization.

 

Besides, research proposals from independent research agencies and institutions on applied aspects of Wildlife Conservation in India are also provided support under this scheme.   During 2013-14, three ongoing projects were supported under the scheme.

 

Allocation and expenditure under CS- ‘Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies for Special Tasks/ Control of Wildlife Crime

   (Rs in  crores)

 

 

Five year plan

 

Outlay

Allotted

Expenditure

 

X

10.00

15.00

11.28

XI

35.00

28.08

21.26

XII

70.00

25.62

(allocation during four financial years)

16.986

(upto March, 2015)

 

National Board for Wildlife

Due to the rapid decline in wildlife population, the Government of India during 1952 had constituted an advisory  body designated as the Indian Board for Wildlife (IBWL). The Indian Board for Wildlife  was chaired by the Prime Minister. Since its inception, twenty-one meetings have been convened and several important decisions relating to conservation of wildlife has been taken by the Board.


During the 1970’s the Government of India appointed a committee for recommending legislative measures and administrative machinery for ensuring environmental protection.  Accordingly, a comprehensive central legislation was enacted in 1972 called the Wildlife (Protection) Act for providing  special legal protection to our wildlife and to the endangered species of fauna in particular. The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 has been amended, the latest being in 2006.  As per the amendment of the Act in 2002, a provision was incorporated for the constitution of the  National Board for Wildlife, replacing the Indian Board for Wildlife.

National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is a statutory Board constituted on 22nd September 2003 under Section 5 of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. The NBWL is chaired by the Hon’ble Prime Minister. The NBWL has 47 members including the Chairman. Amongst these, 19 members are ex-officio members. The  constitution of the National Board for Wildlife may be seen at following links:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/NATIONAL%20BOARD%20FOR%20WILDLIFE-NOTIFICATION.pdf[PDF](75.8 KB)

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/NBWL%20GAZETTE%20NOTIFICATION.pdf[PDF](77.91 KB)

 

2.       The Standing Committee of NBWL has been re-constituted vide notification no 6-46/2013- WL (pt-2) dated 22nd July 2014. Hon’ble MEF chairs the Standing Committee of NBWL and the Director, Wildlife Preservation (Addl. DGF (WL) is the Member Secretary of both NBWL and its Standing Committee. The constitution of the Standing Committee of NBWL may be seen at the following link:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/STANDING%20COMMITTEE%20OF%20NBWL-%20NOTIFICATION.pdf[PDF](165.9 KB)

 

3.       The meetings of the Standing Committee of NBWL have been held since its re-constitution regularly in every 2-3 months period. From August 2014 to March 2015, three meetings were held and considered 262 proposals both within and outside protected areas and 29 proposals on policy matters.

4.       Number of proposals considered by the Standing Committee of NBWL during three recent meetings as below: 

S.

No.

Meeting Date

Policy Matters

Within Protected Area

Outside Protected Areas

1

31st meeting  held on 12th 13th August 2014

13

90

76

 

2

32nd meeting held on 21st January 2015

4

25

28

3

33rd meeting held on 14th March 2015.

12

11

3

 

Total

29

126

107

 

ECO-SENSITIVE ZONES

The National Wild Life Action Plan (2002-2016) provided for declaring identified areas around Protected Areas and corridors as ecologically fragile under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, wherever necessary. The Indian Board for Wild Life on 21st January, 2002 considered Wild Life Conservation Strategy, 2002 and recommended that lands falling within 10 km of the boundaries of National Parks and Sanctuaries should be notified as eco-fragile zones under Section 3(v) of the Environment (Protection) Act and Rule 5  Sub-Rule 5(viii) & (x) of Environment (Protection) Rules.

          The National Board for Wild Life reviewed the matter on 17th March, 2005 and recommended that delineation of eco-sensitive zones would have to be site specific, and relate to regulation, rather than prohibition, of specific activities. The following criteria, as proposed by the Ministry were agreed by the National Board for Wildlife for declaration of  Eco-Sensitive Zones around National Parks and Sanctuaries:

i.                     Complete protection to endemic species in its entire range;

ii.                      Development processes not to reduce, damage or destroy the habitat  of critically  endangered or any other threatened species;

iii.                   Protection to biological corridors;

iv.                    Protection to highly complex and diversified ecosystems susceptible to irreversible damage, like coral reefs, mangroves, etc.;

v.                       Sites associated with reproductive, breeding or nurturing behaviour of  rare and threatened species;

vi.                    Existence of pristine forests;

vii.                  Steep slopes ( more than 60º)

 

          Section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 gives power to the Central Government i.e. the Union Min­istry of Environment and Forests to take all measures that it feels are necessary for protecting and improving the quality of the environment and to prevent and control environmental pollution.  Eco-Sensitive Zones are notified and regulated accordingly under Section 3(2)(v) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

          Ministry has been in engagement with the States/UTs on submission of ESZ proposals around the PAs. Meetings were held with representatives of States/UTs in January, February and April 2014 and in February, March, April and May 2015.

 Process adopted in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change for notification of Eco-Sensitive Zones:

·        Proposal received are scrutinized in consultation with the Wildlife Institute of India. 

·        After finalizing the draft notification, the same is got vetted legally after approval of competent authority and thereafter, published in Government Gazette and        also placed in public domain for 60 days in accordance with the Rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules, seeking views of public.

·        The views/comments/activities recommended are compiled and considered by the Expert Committee for finalizing the final notification to be issued under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

·        The Expert Committee is a multi-disciplinary Committee comprising of subject expert institutions for examining the comments and finalizing the draft final notification based on the draft notification and the comments received thereon.

·         The draft  final notification thus prepared is again got vetted legally after approval of competent authority before it is finally published in the Government Gazette.

                      As per the Gazette Notification No. G.S.R. 513 (E) dated 28th June 2012, final notifications for eco-sensitive zones are to be issued within a period of 545 days, for those proposals for which comments have been received from the public, after the publication of preliminary notification. 

 

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau

The Wild Life Crime Control Bureau has been created under Section 38Y of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.  The mandate has been specified under Section 38(z) which includes collection, collation of intelligence and its dissemination, establishment of a centralized Wild Life crime databank , coordination of the actions of various enforcement authorities towards the implementation of the provisions of the Act, implementation of the international Conventions, capacity building for scientific and professional investigation, assistance to authorities in other countries for a coordinated universal action towards control of Wild Life crime and to advise the government on various policy and legal requirements.
Major activities carried out by the WCCB in the recent period are at: <http://wccb.gov.in/>

Central Zoo Authority

The Central Zoo Authority was created by the Central Government through an amendment of the Wild Life (Protection) Act in the year 1992.  The main objective was to enforce certain minimum standards and norms for upkeep and health care of animals in Zoos and to restrain mushrooming of unplanned and ill-conceived Zoos that were cropping up as adjuncts to public parks, industrial complex and highways.
Major activities carried out by the CZA in the recent period are at: <http://cza.nic.in/>

National Zoological Park

The National Zoological Park was set up on 1st November 1959 as per the decision taken in the 1st Meeting of the Indian Board for Wild Life in 1952. It is being directly managed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Major activities carried out by NZP in the recent period are at: <http://nzpnewdelhi.gov.in/>

Wildlife Institute of India

Wildlife Institute of India was established in 1982 as an attached office of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Subsequently, it was granted autonomous status in 1986.  The institute is mandated by Government of India to carry out research on various aspects on Wild Life conservation, conduct training programmes for capacity building of Wild Life managers, build up repository of knowledge of Wild Life and provide technical and advisory services to the State and Central Governments in the country.
Major activities carried out by the Institute in the recent period are at: <http://www.wii.gov.in/>