Keywords

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Environmental Laws, Programmes  implemented by  State Pollution Control Boards  , Initiatives  to  control Vehicular Pollution, Sources  of Water Pollution, Waste Water Generation Scenario , Critically polluted areas, Institutional framework to check pollution , Environmental Authorities , Noise pollution,  Noise Pollution due to fire crackers , Noise Pollution due to loud speakers , Noise Pollution due to generator sets  , List of SPCBs/PCCs, Functions of Pollution Control Boards,  Financial support/status of Central /State PCBs/Committees , Uniform rules /procedure for SPCBs/PCCs, Programmes for Industrial pollution control , 17 categories industries , Sustainable development , Incentives to the industries, Adaptation, Adaptation Fund, ADP, Afforestation, Anthropogenic greenhouse emissions, Carbon market, Carbon sequestration, CER, CDM, COP, CMP, Deforestation, DNA , ERU, Emissions trading, EB CDM, Financial Mechanism, Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), GEF, GWP, , GCF, GHGs, Group of 77 (G-77) and China, IAR, ICA, IPCC, , Kyoto Protocol, Kyoto mechanisms, LULUCF, LMDC , Loss and damage, Mitigation , Montreal Protocol, MRV, NAPAs, Documents prepared by least developed countries (LDCs) identifying urgent and immediate needs for adapting to climate change., NAPCC, National communication, NAMAs, Protocol, QELROs, Ratification, REDD, Reforestation, Research and systematic observation, , RMU, Second Assessment Report (SAR) , SAPCC, SBI,  SBSTA, Sustainable development, Technology transfer, Third Assessment Report (TAR), UNFCCC, Voluntary commitments , Vulnerability

Simpified Glossary of Technical Terms

Terms

Definitions

Adaptation

Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.

Adaptation Fund

The Adaptation Fund was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable and are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Fund is to be financed with a share of proceeds from clean development mechanism (CDM) project activities and receive funds from other sources. It is operated by the Adaptation Fund Board.

ADP

Ad hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. It is a subsidiary body established at COP 17 in Durban in 2011 to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties. The ADP is to complete its work by 2015 in order to adopt this protocol, legal instrument or agreed outcome with legal force at the twenty-first session of the COP and for it to come into effect from 2020.

Afforestation

Planting of new forests on lands that historically have not contained forests.

Anthropogenic greenhouse emissions

Greenhouse-gas emissions resulting from human activities.

Carbon market

A popular (but misleading) term for a trading system through which countries may buy or sell units of greenhouse-gas emissions in an effort to meet their national limits on emissions, either under the Kyoto Protocol or under other agreements, such as that among member states of the European Union. The term comes from the fact that carbon dioxide is the predominant greenhouse gas, and other gases are measured in units called "carbon-dioxide equivalents."

Carbon sequestration

The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir.

CER

Certified emission reductions (CER). A Kyoto Protocol unit equal to 1 metric tonne of CO2 equivalent. CERs are issued for emission reductions from CDM project activities. Two special types of CERs called temporary certified emission reduction (tCERs) and long-term certified emission reductions (lCERs) are issued for emission removals from afforestation and reforestation CDM projects.

CDM

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). A mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol through which developed countries may finance greenhouse-gas emission reduction or removal projects in developing countries, and receive credits for doing so which they may apply towards meeting mandatory limits on their own emissions

COP

Conference of the Parties (COP). The supreme body of the Convention. It currently meets once a year to review the Convention's progress. The word "conference" is not used here in the sense of "meeting" but rather of "association". The "Conference" meets in sessional periods, for example, the "fourth session of the Conference of the Parties."

CMP

Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP). The Convention's supreme body is the COP, which serves as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The sessions of the COP and the CMP are held during the same period to reduce costs and improve coordination between the Convention and the Protocol.

Deforestation

Conversion of forest to non-forest.

DNA

Designated National Authority (DNA). An office, ministry, or other official entity appointed by a Party to the Kyoto Protocol to review and give national approval to projects proposed under the Clean Development Mechanism.

ERU

Emission reduction unit (ERU).A Kyoto Protocol unit equal to 1 metric tonne of CO2 equivalent. ERUs are generated for emission reductions or emission removals from joint implementation projects

Emissions trading

One of the three Kyoto mechanisms, by which an Annex I Party may transfer Kyoto Protocol units to, or acquire units from, another Annex I Party. An Annex I Party must meet specific eligibility requirements to participate in emissions trading

EB CDM

Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism .A 10-member panel elected at COP-7 which supervises the CDM.

Financial Mechanism

Developed country Parties (Annex II Parties) are required to provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties implement the Convention. To facilitate this, the Convention established a financial mechanism to provide funds to developing country Parties. The Parties to the Convention assigned operation of the financial mechanism to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) on an on-going basis, subject to review every four years. The financial mechanism is accountable to the COP.

Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, released in 2007.

GEF

Global Environment Facility (GEF). The GEF is an independent financial organization that provides grants to developing countries for projects that benefit the global environment and promote sustainable livelihoods in local communities. The Parties to the Convention assigned operation of the financial mechanism to the GEF on an on-going basis, subject to review every four years. The financial mechanism is accountable to the COP.

GWP

Global warming potential (GWP). An index representing the combined effect of the differing times greenhouse gases remain in the atmosphere and their relative effectiveness in absorbing outgoing infrared radiation.

 

 

GCF

Green Climate Fund (GCF). At COP 16 in Cancun in 2010, Governments established a Green Climate Fund as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention under Article 11. The GCF will support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing country Parties. The Fund will be governed by the GCF Board.

GHGs

Greenhouse gases (GHGs). The atmospheric gases responsible for causing global warming and climate change. The major GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20). Less prevalent --but very powerful -- greenhouse gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

Group of 77 (G-77) and China

A large negotiating alliance of developing countries that focuses on numerous international topics, including climate change. The G-77 was founded in 1967 under the auspices of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). It seeks to harmonize the negotiating positions of its 131 member states.

IAR

Independent Assessment Report (IAR). The output of an independent assessment of each Annex I Party's International Transaction Log, which in turn is part of the Party's reporting requirements to the UNFCCC. IAR is forwarded to expert review teams for consideration as part of the review of national registries under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol. the procedure to produce the IAR is designed to provide independent assessment of each national registry

ICA

International consultation and analysis (ICA). A form of review currently being negotiated and designed in the UNFCCC intergovernmental process.

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Programme, the IPCC surveys world-wide scientific and technical literature and publishes assessment reports that are widely recognized as the most credible existing sources of information on climate change. The IPCC also works on methodologies and responds to specific requests from the Convention's subsidiary bodies. The IPCC is independent of the Convention

 

 

Kyoto Protocol

An international agreement standing on its own, and requiring separate ratification by governments, but linked to the UNFCCC. The Kyoto Protocol, among other things, sets binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by industrialized countries

Kyoto mechanisms

Three procedures established under the Kyoto Protocol to increase the flexibility and reduce the costs of making greenhouse-gas emissions cuts. They are the Clean Development Mechanism, Emissions Trading and Joint Implementation

LULUCF

Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF). A greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use, land-use change and forestry activities.

LMDC

Like Minded Developing Country (LMDC). LMDC is a platform for like minded developing countries to exchange views and coordinate positions on the climate negotiations in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the view to contribute on achieving the combined goals of environmental sustainability, social and economic development, and equity.

Loss and damage

At COP 16 in Cancun in 2010, Governments established a work programme in order to consider approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change as part of the Cancun Adaptation Framework.

Mitigation

In the context of climate change, a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. Examples include using fossil fuels more efficiently for industrial processes or electricity generation, switching to solar energy or wind power, improving the insulation of buildings, and expanding forests and other "sinks" to remove greater amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, an international agreement adopted in Montreal in 1987.

MRV

Measurable, reportable and verifiable. A process/concept that potentially supports greater transparency in the climate change regime.

NAPAs

National adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs)

Documents prepared by least developed countries (LDCs) identifying urgent and immediate needs for adapting to climate change.

 

NAPCC

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) formulated in 2008 with Eight National Missions-(i) National Solar Mission (ii) National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (iii) National Mission on Sustainable Habitat (iv) National  Water  Mission (v) National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (vi) National Mission for a Green India (vii) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (viii) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change. The focus of these missions, is to promote understanding of climate change, undertake adaptation and mitigation measures and natural resource conservation.

National communication

A document submitted in accordance with the Convention (and the Protocol) by which a Party informs other Parties of activities undertaken to address climate change. Most developed countries have now submitted their fifth national communications; most developing countries have completed their first national communication and are in the process of preparing their second.

NAMAs

Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs). At COP 16 in Cancun in 2010, Governments decided to set up a registry to record nationally appropriate mitigation actions seeking international support, to facilitate the matching of finance, technology and capacity-building support with these actions, and to recognize other NAMAs.

Protocol

An international agreement linked to an existing convention, but as a separate and additional agreement which must be signed and ratified by the Parties to the convention concerned. Protocols typically strengthen a convention by adding new, more detailed commitments.

QELROs

Quantified Emissions Limitation and Reduction Commitments (QELROs) Legally binding targets and timetables under the Kyoto Protocol for the limitation or reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by developed countries.

Ratification

Formal approval, often by a Parliament or other national legislature, of a convention, protocol, or treaty, enabling a country to become a Party. Ratification is a separate process that occurs after a country has signed an agreement. The instrument of ratification must be deposited with a "depositary" (in the case of the Climate Change Convention, the UN Secretary-General) to start the countdown to becoming a Party (in the case of the Convention, the countdown is 90 days).

REDD

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.

Reforestation

Replanting of forests on lands that have previously contained forests but that have been converted to some other use.

Research and systematic observation

An obligation of Parties to the Climate Change Convention; they are called upon to promote and cooperate in research and systematic observation of the climate system, and called upon to aid developing countries to do so.

 

 

RMU

Removal unit (RMU). A Kyoto Protocol unit equal to 1 metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent. RMUs are generated in Annex I Parties by LULUCF activities that absorb carbon dioxide.

Second Assessment Report (SAR)

An extensive review of worldwide research on climate change compiled by the IPCC and published in 1995. Some 2,000 scientists and experts participated. The report is also known as Climate Change 1995. The SAR concluded that "the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate." It also said "no-regrets options" and other cost-effective strategies exist for combating climate change.

SAPCC

State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC). With the announcement made by the Prime Minister in 2009, all the State Governments were requested to prepare SAPCC in line with the objectives of NAPCC.

SBI

Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) The SBI makes recommendations on policy and implementation issues to the COP and, if requested, to other bodies.

 SBSTA

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). The SBSTA serves as a link between information and assessments provided by expert sources (such as the IPCC) and the COP, which focuses on setting policy.

Sustainable development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Technology transfer

A broad set of processes covering the flows of know-how, experience and equipment for mitigating and adapting to climate change among different stakeholders

Third Assessment Report (TAR)

The third extensive review of global scientific research on climate change, published by the IPCC in 2001. Among other things, the report stated that "The Earth's climate system has demonstrably changed on both global and regional scales since the pre-industrial era, with some of these changes attributable to human activities. There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities." The TAR also focused on the regional effects of climate change.

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Voluntary commitments

A draft article considered during the negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol that would have permitted developing countries to voluntarily adhere to legally binding emissions targets. The proposed language was dropped in the final phase of the negotiations. The issue remains important for some delegations and continues to be discussed, currently in the context of the Bali Action Plan, in terms of what constitutes "voluntary".

Vulnerability

The degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity.

 

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